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^Indicates publications by IM students
Two publications from Graham Redweik in Dr. Melha Mellata's lab.
Background: In commercial agricultural industries like poultry, animals are simultaneously given a number of vaccines and probiotics to improve productivity. Studies describing the effectiveness of these products typically look at their effects alone vs a non-treated group. Thus, our lab is interested in how the combination of these prophylactics (more specifically, a probiotic mixture with or without a live Salmonella vaccine) alters host responses in chickens.
1. ^Redweik GAJ, Stromberg ZR, Van Goor A, and Mellata M (2019). Protection against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella Kentucky exhibited in chickens given both probiotics and live Salmonella vaccine. Poultry Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.10.038
Summary: Chickens are a reservoir for pathogenic bacteria which can either inflict disease in chickens themselves (ex: E. coli) or be shed via feces and contaminate food products (ex: Salmonella). Given many of these pathogens are resistant to antibiotics, use of live prophylactics like probiotics or live Salmonella vaccines, both of which are currently implemented in poultry practices, are a feasible alternative to reducing levels of these bacteria. Additionally, there is evidence suggesting that probiotics can serve as biological adjuvants to improve vaccine efficacy. In this study, we found this combination uniquely improved resistance to both E. coli disease and Salmonella fecal shedding in chickens, further supporting the role of probiotics as adjuvants.
2. ^Redweik GAJ, Daniels K, Severin AJ, Lyte M and Mellata M (2020). Oral Treatments With Probiotics and Live Salmonella Vaccine Induce Unique Changes in Gut Neurochemicals and Microbiome in Chickens. Front. Microbiol. 10:3064. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.03064
Summary: Both probiotics and live Salmonella vaccines are given orally in chickens, suggesting they might have effects on the gastrointestinal environment. In this study, we found unique changes in catecholamine metabolism. Additionally, we found microbiome profiles to be unique per treatment group. Additionally, we used linear regression models to find that Enterobacteriaceae and Akkermansia muciniphila positively-correlated with the catecholamine metabolites norepinephrine and tyrosine, respectively. Altogether, these data show that the choice to use probiotics and a live vaccine alone or in-combination has major implications in abundances of important taxa as well as neurochemical synthesis, which may have an influence on the gut-brain-microbiota axis in chickens.